There are several causes of jitter, some of there are:
- System phenomena, such as cross-talk from radiated or conducted signals, dispersion effects, and impedence mismatches.
- Data-dependent phenomena, due to the pattern of data in the bitstream data. This can result in inter-symbol interference, duty-cycle distortion, and pseudorandom periodicity in the bitstream.
- Random-noise phenomena, caused by thermal effects, noise associated with electron flow in conductors, shot noise caused by electron and hole noise in semiconductors, or pink noise spectrally related to the inverse of the clock frequency